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The federal government has the power “to make laws for the peace, order and good government of Canada” except for subjects where the provinces are given exclusive powers. Among the many exclusive powers of the federal government are:
Money and Banking
Regulation of Trade and Commerce
According to the Constitution Act, 1867, everything not mentioned as belonging to the provincial governments comes under the power of the federal government.
The Provincial governments are responsible for issues that are explicitly given to them in Canada's written constitution the Constitution Act, 1867. Through the provincial legislature, the provincial government has the power to enact or amend laws and programs related to:
Administration of Justice
Natural Resources and the Environment
Property and Civil Rights in Ontario
The province directly funds or transfers money to institutions to ensure the delivery of these important responsibilities, as well as provincial highways, culture and tourism, prisons, post-secondary education, and other services to Ontarians. The provincial legislature also has power over all municipal institutions in the province.
The powers of municipal governments are determined by the provincial government. Municipal governments in Ontario are responsible for providing many of the services within their local boundaries that you rely on daily such as:
Animal Control and By-law Enforcement
Arts and Culture
Garbage Collection and Recycling
Long Term Care and Senior Housing
Maintenance of Local Road Network
Parks and Recreation
Planning New Community Developments and Enhancing Existing Neighbourhoods
Provincial Offences Administration
Water and Sewage
The Municipal Act is a consolidated statute governing the extent of powers and duties, internal organization and structure of municipalities in Ontario. A full text of the Act may be found on the Government of Ontario's e-Laws web site.
The current Municipal Act, which took effect on January 1, 2003, represents the first comprehensive overhaul of Ontario’s municipal legislation in 150 years and is the cornerstone of a new, stronger provincial-municipal relationship. Effective January 1, 2007, the Municipal Act, 2001 (the Act) was significantly amended by the Municipal Statute Law Amendment Act, 2006 (Bill 130).
Municipalities are governed by municipal councils. The job of municipal councils is to make decisions about municipal financing and services.
In Ontario, the head of a local (lower or single tier) municipal council is either called the mayor or the reeve. The members of council may be called councillors or aldermen.
Source of Information: https://www.amo.on.ca/about-us/municipal-101